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Wednesday, January 22, 2020


To All,
     Different cultures have different ideas.  In some, it is impolite to point your feet in a given way; in others, to show the bottom of your feet or shoes; in some women must cover their hair in public; in some women at the beach can wear bikinis; in some, people do not eat pigs; in some people do not eat cows; in some people do eat dogs; and the list can go on for pages.
     The following is how Chinese culture describes certain features of an animal.  See if you can guess which animal is being described?
Xxxxx's are clever, quick thinkers; successful, but content with living a quiet and peaceful life.
In Chinese culture, xxxxx's were seen as a sign of wealth and surplus. Because of their reproduction rate, married couples also prayed to them for children.

Ranking the first in the Chinese zodiac, the xxxxx represents wisdom. Personality traits for the people born in the year of the xxxxx are intelligent, charming, quick-witted, practical, ambitious, and good at economizing as well as social activities. The weaknesses are that the xxxxx's are likely to be timid, stubborn, wordy, greedy, devious, too eager for power and love to gossip.


With all those clues, you probably were able to come up with the correct answer.  The answer is of course, not the tiger, not the snake, not the dragon, or the sheep, not the pig or the dog, but the rat is the answer. Cultures vary, and they also differ on how they describe different animals.

Meanwhile, Saturday 25 January 2020 is the Chinese New Year, and in Vietnam it is also the New Year called Tet.  In China and Vietnam this is the time to travel to visit relatives.  It is sad that in Wuhan there is a major outbreak of a virus, and travel is restricted.  To those in VN, Happy New Year!  To those in China, Happy Year of the Rat, though in English, that does not sound so good, so Happy New Year!  To those throughout the world, have a great year.  I wonder what Mickey Mouse thinks of all this at Disney?

Tuesday, October 15, 2019


The following is meant to be part of a chapter of my forthcoming book on civil rights and affirmative action.  This excerpt is a partial review of Skrentny's Minority Rights book.  Hugh Murray

THE MINORITY RIGHTS REVOLUTION(Cambridge, MA and London, Eng.: Belknap Press
of Harvard U. Press, 2002) by JOHN D. SKRENTNY

John D. Skrentny's The Minority Rights Revolution is probably the last, best academic history of the development of affirmative action in the United States. Overall, it is not an easy read or a beautifully crafted one, as he must describe laws, bureaucracies, rulings and regulations, court interpretations – not exactly the venues of poetry. Occasionally, political strategies are also included. What makes this an important work is that Skrentny attended Harvard as a graduate student where he was awarded a degree and studied under the prominent scholar Orlando Patterson; Skrentny interviewed men like Hugh Graham Davis, author of an earlier, fact-filled work on the development of civil rights; and Skrentny also interviewed Alfred Blumrosen, who may be considered the chief architect of what we call today affirmative action (hereafter AA). Skrentny's book is published by Belknap of Harvard University Press; it is academically solid with an abundance of discursive footnotes. Thomas Sugrue, a reviewer of this book, declared that Skrentny “has written the definitive account of the dramatic expansion of minority rights in America in the 1960s and 1970s.”(book's back cover) This work satisfies both academia and the Establishment. But what does it omit? What are the major questions about the development of “civil rights” that he fails to ask?

On page V, Skrentny asserts that he is mainly on the Left politically. He adds, “Policy elites make decisions and those decisions matter.”(14) In his book he basically traces the elite and how it, and its employees, arrived at what today we call affirmative action. Yet in doing so, Skrentny changes the meanings of words in an Orwellian sense. Thus, “The minority rights revolution was a sudden growth of federal legislation, presidential executive orders, bureaucratic rulings, and court decisions that established nondiscrimination rights.”(4) No, that sentence is absurd. Instead it established the right, and often the duty, to discriminate against white men. All are equal, but some are more equal than others.

Prior to outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, Nazi legal experts researched America's segregation laws, for the purpose of adopting some for use against the Jews in Germany.(See James Q. Whitman, Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law, Princeton U. Press, 2017) But once war erupted with the US, the Germans willingly highlighted the hypocrisy of the US that complained about Germany's racial laws when the US had numerous racial laws of its own. Skrentny does not mention it, but through WWII a majority of American states had laws forbidding intermarriage of different races. The Japanese invaded much of Asia, but they hoped the local people would view them not as invaders but as liberators! They would liberate the Philippines from the colonialist, white racist Americans; the Indonesians from the colonialist, white racist Dutch; IndoChina from the colonialist, white racist French; Hong Kong, Malaysia, Burma, India, from the colonialist, white racist British empire. Within the US, most Japanese (citizens or not) were interned in camps under Roosevelt, so they were generally too isolated to be aware of current Japanese propaganda: however that propaganda did evoke some response among other minorities, including on the then tiny Black Muslim movement. To counter this Axis appeal, “...President Franklin Delano Roosevelt strongly promoted the United States as a symbol of human rights and race equality.”(11)

Skrentny titles his second chapter - “'This is war and this is a war measure': racial equality becomes national security.”(21) In a radio address in January 1941 Roosevelt declared that those fighting against the Axis were fighting for the Four Freedoms: freedom of speech and expression; freedom of religion; freedom from want; and freedom from fear.(24) A few months prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and America's official entry into the conflict, Roosevelt signed and Executive Order to promote Fair Employment practices in America's expanding war-time industries. While Skrentny spends some pages on FDR's proposed social programs during the war, he does not mention a plank in the 1944 Democratic Party's platform that would limit salaries to a high of $25,000 a year.

With the defeat of Hitler and Tojo, the US was soon engaged in a Cold War with Stalin's Communist Soviet Union. The world-wide Communist Parties had long stressed their opposition to both racism and colonialism (except when the topic was Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe.) To many major players in the United States, if America was to achieve “world leadership and defeat communism,” the US would have to “eliminate white racism, both domestically and internationally.”(72) To achieve this end, some states enacted their own FEPC laws, the US Supreme Court outlawed legally segregated schools in 1954, Pres. Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock in 1957 to insure that several Black students could attend the white Central High School (of course, Ike was a Republican, but nevertheless, no president had sent troops South on behalf of Blacks since the Reconstruction era), and a few years later, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [hereafter, CRA]. “Because these reforms were classically liberal, however, the new laws did not identify any particular minority groups. The initial civil rights gains for blacks, for example, in fact protected any and all Americans. These were simply nondiscrimination provisions.”(84, emphasis in Skrentny's original.)

Black historian, former Chair of the Civil Rights Commission, and left-wing activist Mary Frances Berry asserted that the CRA of 1964 did not apply to whites; it was enacted for Blacks. At first glance, Skrentny seems to agree with her. He writes: “..., it must be emphasized that American citizens and political elites saw Title VII and the entire CRA of 1964 as being a law for African Americans.”(100) But on the very next page he quotes a leading liberal politician and floor manager pushing the proposed legislation through a Senate where filibusters had killed previous bills. The Minnesota senator was one of those most responsible for garnering the votes to pass the CRA into law and: “Senator Hubert Humphrey stated bluntly that 'the bill has a simple purpose...to give fellow citizens – Negroes – the same rights and opportunities that white people take for granted.'”(101) Here, as elsewhere, Humphrey spoke of equal rights, NOT preferential rights over whites. Skrentny also reports, it was not only Humphrey who interpreted things this way, for “...the civil rights leaders before 1965 never made affirmative action as later understood one of their central demands [however] the policy nevertheless became civil rights...”(343, again, the emphasis in Skrentny's original).

Skrentny acknowledges that AA meant “official minorities,” and abandoning the classical liberal approach concerning individual rights, and replacing it by dividing the nation into “oppressed minorities and privileged majorities.”(85) Moreover, AA was a cheap, easy, available way to appease the desires of the EEOC.(86) Who should be included on the list of minorities on the EEO forms to be sent to employers? The replies would determine whom they had hired and in what proportion. Blumrosen, of course, wanted the data concerning Blacks hired at any given firm. Earlier forms for various government agencies had included listings for Puerto Ricans or Mexican Americans or Spanish-speaking, American Indians, and various words to include Asians too. The early EEOC forms did not include the category for women, although women were included in the CRA. Nor did the EEOC inquire of employers about Poles, Greeks, Irish, or Roman Catholics, or Jews. There were no inquiries on the forms about those categories, even though the CRA included categories for banning discrimination based on national origin or religion. But the EEOC ignored these aspects of the law. The reason for this omission: Skrentny thought the employer could readily make a tally by looking at his work-force, without asking them. This was not necessarily true, as most Hispanics viewed themselves as white, so looking at them might not have revealed that they were Hispanic. If the employer then checked their names, he could also have checked to see a Polish name, a Greek one, and Irish one. Yet, the ethnics were not counted in the government's official tally.

In the 1940s and 50s, Jews were included on some government forms. Blacks objected, and the Jews decided not to press the issue, as they were also aware of how the data might be used against them.(282-83) In the EEOC the question of religious AA in hiring was never broached.(435) For a time during President Nixon's drive to promote Black capitalism, and other minority enterprises, the Small Business Administration did include Hasidim (a very Orthodox Jewish group), but that effort did not last long.(162-63) Skrentny asserts that there were no AA university quotas for white ethnics (310); but he is wrong. Beginning in 1976 Italian-Americans were granted the privileged AA status at the City University of New York.(See Linda Kirillova's MA Thesis, “When Affirmative Action is White: Italian-Americans in the City University of New York, 1976 – Present,” Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 2016) Nevertheless, this appears to be so unique that Skrentny's assessment of the issue is essentially correct. Blumrosen defended the policy of excluding white ethnics from AA because to do otherwise would have interfered with the main goal of helping Blacks.(438)

But there is another reason white ethnics were not included on the EEOC forms that would have given them a guaranteed percentage of jobs, places in universities, promotions, etc. Would the inclusion of white ethnics really have harmed the Blacks? The Black proportion of the population presumably would remain the same. Was Blumrosen's explanation for the exclusion, the “reason,” or a rationale for depriving white ethnics of AA privileges? And many white ethnics did seek to be included among the AA beneficiaries. Indeed, Polish advocates wanted to know why Hispanics were the only whites included in AA.(293) And being excluded from the government's list of official minorities meant that “national policy therefore racialized ethnics as privileged whites.”(314) And today in public schools from elementary to high school to university, there are lectures and classes taught stressing how all whites are privileged and therefore ought to be restricted. In some classrooms today, several teachers have boasted that they do not call upon whites. From the seemingly minor point of an agency creating distorted regulations and sending employers questionnaires demanding information about employment of certain minorities, but ignoring other minorities, from that act of excluding some groups on a government form, from that seed forests of hatred have blossomed.

Bottom line, author Skrentny, like almost all academics, supports affirmative action and the manipulations of the elite forces to impose it on America. I disagree, and this review will be part of my forthcoming book seeking to expose the lies and deceptions of the civil rights movement.

Saturday, October 12, 2019


      About a week ago, a German tried to shoot the Jews attending a synagogue service on Yom Kippur in the small city of Halle, Germany.  Apparently, the terrorist was not Muslim, and was a lone-wolf, neo-Nazi.  The video of him shooting at the building from his automobile showed his determination, and hatred, and murderous intent.  It brought back many memories to me.
      I had to think about the past when news from Europe was reported.  Decades ago  I taught English in Europe, and our part of the university was the building Anglistik-Americanistik.  One day walking on the small street toward the building I passed a small wall with a metal thing atop.  But as I walked past, I realized it suddenly became a star of David.  I stopped a second.  Moved slowly, and the image disintegrated from a side view. Directly from the front, it was a Mogen David. When I asked a colleague, she informed me that that had been the front to the space of the synagogue, which had been destroyed by the Nazis.  This street and this building had been part of the old ghetto in Halle (as der Saale).  I asked if there were a synagogue then in existence, and she said no, as I recall, but she may not have known either way.  At another time, I recall walking with another teacher, very nice, and we passed a sign of the Kultur Klub Anne Frank.  I said, "Oh look, Anne Frank!"  She replied, "Who is that?"  I was too shocked that a name so well known in the US was unknown by a university teacher in Germany.
       When in Halle, I lived in an efficiency flat in the Hochhaus, a 10-story structure.  An elderly neighbor in the building was Jan Koplowitz, whose mother was Jewish. father was Czech.  She and her sisters each owned a series of small hotels near the Czech border.  He was an activist in the late 1920s and tried to organized the workers in his mom's hotel.  He was kicked out of the family as a result.  He was KPD. a member of the Communist Party of Germany.
    Soon after Hitler came to power, he was rounded up, not as a Jew, but as a communist, and he helped to build the first KZ, Dachau, outside of Munich.  "Helped build" as a prisoner of the concentration camp.  He escaped to Prag and remained red.  At some point, perhaps 1937 or 38, his mother was allowed to visit him in the Czech capital.  He thought that the Nazis wanted her to remain away so they could confiscate her hotel.  He wanted her to stay, as he feared things would get worse.  "What would I do here, wash dishes?"  So she returned to the Reich.  Later in 1938 there was the crisis of the German minority in Czechoslovakia, and as a result of the compromise at Munich, German troops moved into parts of Cz. - the German speaking area called the Sudetenland.
        As German troops marched through the border area moving into Czechoslovakia, on the front of his mother's hotel, someone place a photo of Hitler.  She was worried that it covered a smaller sign that indicated hers was a Jewish hotel.  She moved the picture of Der Fuehrer slightly so that people could realize hers was a Jewish hotel (one that had done well economically, because the Nazis fired many Jews from government service, and they retired to a place like hers where there would be fewer problems.  But now, some saw the 2 signs, and thought she was trying to say Hitler was Jewish.  They fined her the amount of the hotel; in effect her hotel was confiscated..  She could not get out of Germany any longer, so had to survive, she washed dishes in Berlin.  Until she was rounded up and ...
        When the Germans invaded the rest of Cz and Prag, Jan fled to Poland, and somehow made it to England, where he was interned during the war as an enemy alien.  He remained CP.  With victory, the Brits did not want professionals to go to the eastern part of Germany.  He went anyway.  Became a writer and songwriter.
       One of my colleagues was English.  He was born a Jew but was CP.  After the war, he was stationed in the British section of Germany, married a German woman who had been married and had a child by a German soldier, but he was dead.  They married and moved from the west to the east Germany  Remember that Angela Merkel, the present German Kanzler, came from a West German family that also moved to the east.  While over 3 million moved from east to west, about half a million moved from west to east.  Len was English and taught British English at the university in Halle, the Martin Luther University.  He was staunch CP.  I recall some of his Jewish relatives came for a visit, but unlike their other relatives who would visit Israel, they were anti-Zionist, purposely not going there and instead would vacation in Egypt.  Bottom line, even if Halle then had a synagogue, I doubt if either Len or Jan would have gone.  Len and Kate had 2 children of their own, but I doubt if they identified at all as Jews.  One son was given a very unGerman name of Keith, very English.
       I recall meeting Frau Kuchinsky, daughter of a prominent KPD intellectual of the 1920s.  She was sharp, and allowed to get the NY Review of Books.  Perfect English. 
       Back in NYC, I was then involved with the Irish movement and was selling newspapers concerning events in Northern  Ireland and its civil rights movement, one Sunday morning.  Police said I could not sell the papers in front of St Pat's so I moved across the street to Rockefeller Center.  One person walked by and chose to buy one, 25cents.  He was Mike, who was planning to study at Princeton; he was from Germany.  More we talked more interesting.  His parents were Jews from Vienna.  When Hitler took Austria, they made it to the US.  He was born in Ohio.  Parents were CP.  During the McCarthy era, they fled back to Europe, first Vienna, then E Berlin.  He was a baby, and was told they stayed in the remnants of the famous Hotel Adlon where he slept on a pillow in a drawer.  In school, he excelled in math.  To come to Princeton, it was during the VN war, he had to renounce his American citizenship, as he did not want to be drafted - his parents had taken him out of the US when he was a baby.
       A few years later I stayed with him at his parents home in a pleasant suburb of E Berlin.  Their neighbors were the W German ambassador.  His mother was a judge, and his dad a leader of the academy of scientists organization in E Germany.  Each of his brothers had different citizenships, because as foreigners they could travel more easily outside East Germany.  Mike Rappaport is now a prominent mathematician today. 
       One of my students had a Jewish connexion, but I may have forgotten details.  Her father had left Germany before Hitler came to power.  He lived in the UK.  During the war, he fought on the side of the British in the RAF against his Vaterland.  When his plane was shot, he was not treated as a pow, but as a traitor and sent to a KZ.  He weighed under 100 pounds at war's end.  I think he married a Jewish woman and they went to east Germany.  They divorced, and he returned to Britain.  His daughter was an excellent student, but somehow there was a 2nd marriage, and I forgot all the details. 
        Anyway Halle, and Martin Luther U. where I taught there, brought back many memories.,

Saturday, October 5, 2019


To All,  Still working on a book, so doing less on the blog.  Here is an article similar to one of the topics I shall cover in my upcoming book.  This is from VDARE site.  Hugh Murray
Kritarchy: The End Stage Of Liberal Democracy—Unless We Start Impeaching Judges

By James Kirkpatrick     4 Oct. 2019
Liberal democracy isn’t “in crisis,” as journalists and academics keep saying, it’s already over. In the U.S., the critical 
https://www.booktopia.com.au/http_coversbooktopiacomau/big/9783319979366/0000/liberal-democracy-in-crisis.jpgdecisions on immigration, Affirmative Action, and other issues are now made by judges, a system known as “kritarchy.” In the U.K., the British Supreme Court has usurped the monarchy as the font of law in a decision blatantly intended to prevent Brexit. Across Europe, judges simply overrule elected officials and formulate immigration policies. The illusions most Westerners have about their “free” political systems can no longer be maintained and we must purge ourselves of fantasies if we want real change.
Many Americans thought they were getting real change when they elected Donald Trump president on a platform of immigration restriction. In the teeth of Ruling Class hysteria, it’s still hard to believe that he was actually elected.
Yet it almost didn’t matter. Judges have continuously overruled his policy decisions, seemingly out of spite. One was U.S. District Judge Allison Burroughs, an Obama appointee, who in 2017 overruled President Trump’s executive order which mandated a travel ban for people from certain countries [Boston Federal Court Puts Hold On Trump’s Travel, Refugee Banby Shanoon Dooling, WBUR, January 29, 2017].
Allison Burroughs is also the judge who upheld Harvard’s affirmative action policy earlier this week. Her rambling, flowery judgment declares that “it is somewhat axiomatic at this point that diversity of all sorts, including racial diversity, is an important aspect of education.” Beginning from this questionable “axiom,” she justifies policies that harm Asian-Americans and whites because of the “compelling interest” of achieving “diversity.”
The government’s “compelling interest” in achieving diversity has already been established by the Supreme Court. Programs, policies, and trainings to achieve “diversity” are now staples of American life. “Diversity” dominates our discourse. Yet there is nothing in our Constitution that mandates this–courts simply asserted it, and the political and academic systems obeyed.
Somehow, Judge Burroughs thinks allowing colleges to discriminate will ultimately lead to a racially neutral society. “The rich benefits that flow from that diversity will foster the tolerance, acceptance and understanding that will ultimately make race conscious admissions obsolete,” she writes. Yet why would that happen when affirmative action incentivizes non-white students to organize based on raceRachel Dolezal and Elizabeth Warren didn’t pretend to be non-white because they wanted to be oppressed. They did it because they wanted the material, economic benefits that “flow from that diversity”—if you can claim the right caste membership.  
Judges have imposed other sweeping changes on our way of life. In 1994, California voters approved Proposition 187, which would have massively reduced (if not eliminated) illegal immigration into the once Golden State by eliminating taxpayer subsidies. A District Judge, Mariana Pfaelzer, threw out the law on the grounds that California was enacting its own immigration policy, a power that properly belongs to the federal government. Governor Gray Davis, directly working with the Mexican government, abandoned the appeal.  Since then, California has been dramatically transformed into what is essentially a Third World state. Its political culture and way of life was utterly transformed in defiance of its citizens’ wishes.
Today, California judges like Dolly Gee pronounce verdicts defying federal immigration policy, essentially reversing the arguments used to destroy Proposition 187. In theory, judges interpret law. In practice, judges are political actors like politicians. They simply use whatever arguments necessary to justify the end they want.
The same thing just took place in the United Kingdom. Its constitutional monarchy has just been quietly abolished without many people noting.  The Supreme Court ruled that Prime Minister Boris Johnson unlawfully suspended Parliament several weeks ago [Supreme Court: Suspending Parliament was unlawful, judges rule, BBC, September 24, 2019]. Yet technically, PM Johnson wasn’t the one who suspended Parliament; the Queen did. The Supreme Court is essentially claiming that it can overrule the Queen and that it, not the Crown, is the font of law [The Curious Remainer Coupby Michael Brendan Dougherty, National Review, September 24, 2019]. In practice, this abolishes the unwritten British Constitution, which is why pro-Brexit MP’s like Jacob Rees Mogg claimed it was a “coup” [Jacob Rees Mogg attacks Supreme Court ‘coup’ in raging Cabinet phone callby Nicola Bartlett, Daily Mirror, September 25, 2019].
Matthew Walther accurately notes:
Queen Elizabeth is head of state in name only, a kind of bejeweled notary public, and the prime minister, Boris Johnson, is merely the head of her government. His recent prorogation of Parliament in the hope of forcing a no-deal Brexit was declared null on Tuesday by the recently created Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, led by "Red" Brenda Hale, Baroness Hale of Richmond, with whom the British people are being told the buck ultimately stops.
This is lawless. Never in the history of the British Isles has the judiciary exercised any power over such decisions. The font of law is the monarch, who has given her assent to the prorogation upon the advice of her ministers. The Supreme Court's ruling is nonsensical on its face because it assumes a jurisdiction that it does not possess.
Yet ultimately Johnson, Rees-Mogg, and others have simply accepted the decision.
This is the typical Anglo-American conservative attitude towards the courts; baffled rage that judges are simply asserting powers they do not possess, followed by meek acquiescence. Boris Johnson now finds himself negotiating with a European Union that has no interest in making a deal, meaning that the next few weeks will be consumed by utter chaos [E.U. rejects Boris Johnson’s Brexit proposal, raising prospect of chaotic break within weeksby Michael Birnbaum, Washington Post, October 3, 2019]
There are similar cases in Europe. In August, a judge ruled that “international law” requires Italy to accept hundreds of migrants. In Denmark, a judge mandated family reunification in some immigration cases, undermining the center-left government’s ability to control immigration [EU court rules against Denmark in remarriage immigration case, Reuters, July 10, 2019] In Hungary and Poland, attempts by nationalist governments to assert control over the judiciary have to led to efforts by the European Union to sanction them [Hungary optimistic over swift end to ‘absurd’ EU rule-of-law row, by Valerie Hopkins, Financial Times, September 29, 2019].
Who rules? Not the politicians, and certainly not the people. It seems judges and journalists do. Indeed, it’s the mistaken belief that we rule which allows this situation to continue.
Thus Curtis Yarvin (a.k.a. Mencius Moldbug)’s return to political writing comes at the perfect time. Yarvin is revealing (and dispelling) many cherished political illusions in a five-part series, the first installment of which was just published at The American Mind [The Clear Pill, Part 1 of 5: The Four Stroke Regime  , September 27, 2019]. “Public opinion is an effect, not a cause,” he declares. He argues that the “civic core,” identified as the permanent civil service and “civil society” [i.e. journalists, academia, philanthropic organizations, etc.] directs the “political core,” the people who supposedly are sovereign.
Ravin also accurately notes that the “commoners,” i.e. the suburban middle class, are constantly opposed by the alliance between the “gentry” and the “clients,” the “votebanks” who support them. This elite/client alliance against the middle class has also been recognized by the late Sam Francis and Angelo Codevilla.
Of course, more than any other issue, the issue that defines the split between the elite and the middle and working classes is immigration. Big Business wants cheap labor, Democrats want “votebanks” of reliable non-white supporters, nonprofits want more clients. The rest of us just want to keep our country.
Yarvin has not addressed, yet, the role of the judiciary. It’s becoming clear that popular sovereignty is a myth and we are ruled by an elite as impenetrable as that any that presided over the Holy Roman Empire. And in some ways, elected officials benefit from judicial rule. They can tap into grassroots anger over bad decisions while avoiding the responsibility of making new laws. The Founders did not anticipate this.
Currently, judges make law, journalists police the Narrative and manufacture opinion, and politicians, even supposed “authoritarians” like Trump, go along with it. Kritarchy may represent the real end stage of “liberal democracy.”
To change this, we need to abandon the pretense that we are free and recognize that we are ruled by an elite hostile to our interests. We need to delegitimize the institutions that keep us in this situation. We need to strip away the aura of sanctity that surrounds these judges who are arbitrarily deciding our country’s most important policies. Judges are politicians, just like journalists are activists.
The Democrats want to impeach President Trump. But instead, it’s about time Republicans at the federal and state levels start impeaching some judges.
If they don’t, then we should frankly admit the Constitution has failed—because one branch of government has achieved supremacy above all others.
In that case, I hope journalists can spare us the moralizing about “liberal democracy.” It’s long gone—if indeed it ever existed.

Friday, September 13, 2019


     Outrage!  White celebrity parents paying to get their children into good universities.  (Some Chinese too.)  What a crock!
     For decades universities and the government have cheated to put lesser qualified Blacks and Hispanics into jobs, into scholarships, into universities, into promotions over better qualified applicants.  AFFIRMATIVE ACTION IS CHEATING.  Each year tens of thousands of better qualified whites and Asians are passed over for promotion, denied employment, rejected for scholarships, denied admission to university to satisfy government quotas, diversity requirements, goals and timetables, critical mass of minorities, - whatever the word or phrase of euphemism IT IS CHEATING.  The government does it all the time and requires that corporations do the same.  IT CHEATS to put lesser qualified and unqualified minorities in the seats that should go to better qualified whites and Asians.  No wonder white parents have to cheat too.
      Stop the big cheater from continuing its outrages. END AFFIRMATIVE ACTION.  Let the celebrities go free.

Monday, August 12, 2019


    The media connects Jeffrey Epstein with Ghislaine Maxwell.  The media alleges that she helped "groom" the young girls for the action Epstein required for his friends.  Now we have the strange circumstances of the "suicide" of Epstein in prison.
    None of the media links Epstein with another notable figure whose mysterious death made headlines 3 decades ago - the death of Ghislaine's father - Robert Maxwell.  According to wikipedia, he may have had links to MI6, the KGB, and surely Mossad.
    Read for yourself: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghislaine_Maxwell
    And for Robert:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Maxwell

Friday, July 19, 2019


(New York: Anthony Flood, 2019)
Rev. by Hugh Murray

In his short book Mr. Flood has written an essential work for anyone interested in the many volumes of history written by Dr. Herbert Aptheker. The questions Flood raises, however, are not limited to Aptheker, but concern all historians and indeed all intellectuals who were members of the Communist Party (CP), U.S.A., and other Communist parties world-wide. The question simply put, “Can they be trusted?” When Gary Murrell sought to write about Aptheker for his dissertation, his academic advisor rejected that proposal because “Aptheker's work can't be trusted.”(55) Murrell accommodated his advisors by writing on another topic. However, Murrell clearly disagreed with his academic gatekeepers, and after receiving his doctorate, Murrell wrote a sympathetic biography of Aptheker. One chapter of Flood's book is a review of Murrell's biography.

Flood also includes chapter on a related topic – should Communists be allowed to teach? Sidney Hook, a Professor of Philosophy at New York U. wrote an article published in the New York Times, 9 July 1950, maintaining that CP members should not teach, “Heresy, Yes – But Conspiracy, No.” Hook contended that Communists should be barred from teaching because they were committed to the Communist ideology and would therefore commit “educational fraud.” They could not be objective. Flood includes some of Aptheker's reply to Hook: “You say that they [Communists] must violate the ethics of their profession because as Communists they must think and act in a certain way...The way to demonstrate a scholar's lack of objectivity, his failure to adhere to the canons of scholarship is to examine his writings...(p. 9) Mr. Flood did just that, and found Dr. Aptheker's writings wanting.

Herbert Aptheker began dating the woman whom he would marry, his cousin Fay, in 1936. She had joined the CP in 1929. Herbert then moved in Communist circles, even lecturing on Black history for them at a radical school. In August 1939 Nazi Germany and Communist USSR signed a “Non-Aggression Pact.” While many in the CPUSA were aghast that Stalin was suddenly in league with the bete noir of the Reds, and the American party lost a quarter of its membership, Herbert proudly joined the party at this time. In September 1939 Germany invaded Poland, and so began WWII in Europe. A fortnight later, the Soviets invaded Poland from the East. Dr. Aptheker undoubtedly supported the twists and turns of the Soviet line during this period. Why? Aptheker believed “The marvel of the greatest event in human history [the development of the USSR] was at stake.”(75)

In 1942 Aptheker received his Ph.D. from Columbia U. with his dissertation, a revolution in itself, and revolutionary, a challenge to the accepted historiography of the time on his topic. The history profession then was dominated by the works of U. B. Phillips, whose American Negro Slavery revealed how the “peculiar institution,” overall, was not so bad. It took the slaves from savagery and lifted them, Christianized them, protected them. Aptheker, who in the 1930s and early 40s had traveled in the South searching for historical documents, and also helping to organize an anti-peonage campaign. On at least one occasion, he was severely beaten. His dissertation was a rebellion against the prevalent pro-Southern Philipsian portrayal of American Negro Slavery; thus, Aptheker's title: American Negro Slave Revolts. In this work Aptheker blasted the notions of the contented slave, as he presenting evidence for 240 plots and conspiracies by slaves to destroy the system under which they were forced to live.
During WWII Aptheker served in Europe, commanding Black infantrymen in an artillery unit. Flood once asked Aptheker about his time in the Army, and the historian replied that “we” were fashionable then. At war's end, Aptheker the Communist wrote one of the Army's official histories of events in Europe; he was an officer with an office in the Pentagon.

With war's end, Aptheker still could find no university teaching post because he was a Communist. He became a research assistant to W. E. B. Du Bois, who had an office in the NAACP suite on 40th Street, across from the New York Public Library. Aptheker received $25 a week for this work. In post-war America, hostility extended beyond Communists to others on the Left. W. E. B. Du Bois lost his teaching position at Atlanta U. (his age was the excuse, but he suspected that politics were the real cause). Then in 1948 the NAACP (that non-partisan, tax exempt organization), had Democratic President Harry Truman address the organization's convention, the first president to do so. It was an election year, and most of the leaders of the NAACP favored Truman. When Du Bois openly endorsed one of Truman's opponents, former Vice-President Henry Wallace, running on the Progressive Party ticket, the NAACP fired Du Bois, who had been one of the founders of the organization. Since then, the NAACP has generally been a Democratic Party front-group.

What Mr. Flood spotlights in his short book, and what all the famous doctors of history have failed to clearly reveal, is that Aptheker in his American Negro Slave Revolts and in his many other works of history, fails to mention and fails to cite the important related work on slave revolts - the only successful slave revolt in the Americas – the uprising in Haiti. That rebellion against the French, which led to an independent Haiti, occurred only a few years after the American rebellion against the British, which led to an independent U.S.A. That revolution in Haiti was described in a major work by C. L. R. James in his Black Jacobins, published in 1938, several years before the completion of Aptheker's dissertation on Black revolts in the US. James's book received wide-spread publicity, even being reviewed in Time Magazine, as well as in academic journals. Aptheker must have heard of it. Aptheker often made efforts to meet other historians of Black history. Apparently he made no effort to meet James. Aptheker never mentions James or Black Jacobins in his dissertation or his book on the subject that followed. Why did Aptheker snub the Black man who wrote Black Jacobins? Flood exposes James as Aptheker's “Invisible Man.”

Flood notes how major historians have fumbled this question – Eugene Genovese, John Bracey, Robin D. G. Kelley, Manning Marable, Eric Foner (former president of the Organization of American Historians), Jesse Lemisch, and Dr. Du Bois. All of these historians have discussed both Aptheker and James, but they either ignored how one omitted the other, or they discussed it barely in passing. The basic reason for Aptheker's expelling James from his histories – Aptheker was a Stalinist-Communist; James was a Trotskyist. Communists were not supposed to read or associate or have anything to do with such heretics. The historians mentioned above generally bemoan how the history profession treated Aptheker quite badly, despite how much research Aptheker did, how many books he wrote, how many pioneering studies he fomented, and yet he could not find a full-time teaching job. Moreover, Aptheker was often ignored in the major history works by others. He was ostracized by the history profession. Yet, Aptheker was doing to James what the profession was doing to Aptheker, and those moaning about Aptheker's ostracism do not moan about his ostracizing James.

Strange that it took someone outside the history profession, like Mr. Flood, to expose the blindness, not only of Aptheker, but of other major historians in the field to that blindness.
Flood also points out that in the 7 volumes of Aptheker's Documentary History of the Negro People in the US, he never mentions James. If the excuse be that James was a West Indian, then why, asks Flood, is Eric Williams included? Williams, as Prime Minister of Trinidad even had the Marxist C. L. R. James imprisoned.(81) Aptheker includes the words of the jailer, but not the jailed Black radical.

Flood goes beyond the purging of James from the many places in Aptheker's histories where the Black scholar of the Haitian revolution should have been discussed and cited. Flood also discusses the interview of Aptheker in the Journal of American History,(39-41) where Mr. Flood is critical because Robin D. G. Kelley failed to ask the elder Aptheker certain general questions about slavery. Kelley contended that in the interview they were discussing Black slavery in the US, but Flood argues that Aptheker's general views on slavery and slave insurrections should have been explored. For example, Flood thought Kelley should have asked about Aptheker's book, The Truth about Hungary, in which the American scholar justified the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 to suppress a popular revolution in the Soviet satellite. In Flood's view, Aptheker, who described and justified slave rebellions in the US, wrote a book justifying the Soviets brutally crushing the “slave” rebellion in Hungary. To Flood, it was a clear case of oppressed workers trying to overthrow their Soviet overlords, but losing the battle to tanks and modern weapons. Flood detects a contradiction in Aptheker's position on slavery and rebellion, one not discussed in the interview. Mr. Flood also presents and alternative title to Aptheker's book: The Pravda about Hungary.(37)

More telling, Flood reminds readers of Aptheker's views on slave rebellions and oppression in another area. In 1950 while Aptheker was still a commissioned officer in the US Army, he wrote and published something on events in Korea. Major Aptheker wrote: “As soon as the reactionary and imperialist nature of the American occupation in South Korea and of its creature, the [Syngman] Rhee clique, became clear, demonstrations, strikes, uprisings and guerrilla warfare appeared once again. These appeared . . . in South Korea only – not in North Korea. Uprisings come from oppression. In North Korea the people ruled – therefore no revolts; in South Korea a new foreign master and new Korean traitors held power – therefore constant rebellion.”(41-42) Aptheker wrote this during the Korean War while American soldiers were shooting and being shot at by the forces of North Korea. Flood jabs a point: the expert on slavery and oppression failed to see that rebellions can occur when things are not so bad, and rebellions may not occur when oppression is overwhelming. As there are still no strikes and rebellions in North Korea, using Aptheker's flawed analysis, we can conclude that the people still “rule” in the North.

Flood includes a short, well-written page (65) about a trip to Mexico that Aptheker took in the early 1950s. The question is whether historian Aptheker was also a hit-man or merely a bag-man for the Communists. This is an intriguing episode, and one deserving more research. J. Edgar Hoover had declared Aptheker the most dangerous Communist in America. Surely, the FBI must have been tapping his home and using other means to keep track of him. Are there any old files that could resolve this question, and while at it, possibly throw light on the alleged molestation by Aptheker of his daughter Bettina?

Flood concludes that Aptheker was an historical writer, but not an historian.(79) I disagree. So did Murrell, who wrote that every individual's experiences may influence and distort portrayals of reality.(55) I present my argument using recent events: on July 4, 2019, former footballer Colin Kaepernick posted sentences from an 1852 speech by Black abolitionist Frederick Douglass. In those words, Douglass was sharply critical of the US Government. Soon after Republican Texas Sen. Ted Cruz accused Kaepenick of distorting what Douglass had said. Cruz posted the entire speech, and he maintained Douglass was far less critical when you read the entire address. Of course, others might retort, that too is insufficient; think of the entire life of Douglass and what that meant. And others might reply, but think of all in America during that era, which ended with Civil War and the end of slavery. And others, no that is insufficient, one must include...And others when you consider...So the only way to avoid criticism that one is distorting and cherry-picking is to include a Hegelian everything, the universe. But no historian (or artist, or writer, etc.) can do that. Unable to include the all, historians must pick and choose what to include, and what to omit. History is an art.

However, Aptheker should be condemned for omitting James and Black Jacobins from his works because James's writings are pertinent, closely related to Aptheker's own research. They were writing on similar and sometimes identical subjects. But Aptheker failed to mention or cite or discuss James's works because Aptheker was a Stalinist; James a Trotskyist.

For centuries Roman Catholic priests wrote histories, but they too often had to get approval, from their Order, or from their Bishop before publication. To received such approval, they may have had to avoid certain topics, mention of certain heretics, exposition of certain novel but non-traditional notions of science, etc. Should we ignore what these priests have written? Or should we learn from them with an awareness that perhaps such a book might not be the best source for information concerning Martin Luther? A priest's history may have omissions, may not be “totally objective,” but we may still learn from it.

There is little doubt that Aptheker inspired interest in Black history, in slave rebellions, and in other topics. He was an historian, a Stalinist Communist historian, but an historian, none the less. We must keep things in perspective. Aptheker was not the only author with limitations, and I recall that he pointed to a then current volume on the intellectual history of the US published in 1950 by one of the most prestigious historians, Henry Steele Commager. Here is how wikipedia describes Commanger: “As one of the most active and prolific liberal intellectuals of his time, with 40 books and 700 essays and reviews, he helped define modern liberalism in the United States." I recently checked his book on American intellectual history, The American Mind, published in 1950. This highly praised book ignored Blacks. Was Commager color blind? In this book, Du Bois is absent, as is Booker T. Washington. No mention of Langston Hughes or Richard Wright or even the Harlem Renaissance. Nothing on Frederick Douglass, or the West Indian who founded one of the most popular Black organizations in American history, Marcus Garvey and his Universal Negro Improvement Assn. The only person Commager mentions as he discusses Negroes is Gunnar Myrdal, the Swede who had recently written American Dilemma.(American Mind, p. 414) By comparison, Aptheker omitted James. But liberal Commager seemed to have more blind spots than Stalinist Aptheker. Commager was teaching at Columbia when Aptheker was a student. It is wrong what Aptheker did concerning James, but keep things in perspective. One can learn, but one must be aware of the limitations of even famous historians, and indeed of all intellectuals. In my lexicon, Herbert Aptheker is an historian. And so is Commager.

On a different level, I have criticisms of Flood's book. Reading it, jumping back and forth between text and endnotes, I was sometimes confused as to where I was. The font of the endnotes should be smaller than the text and the numbers larger. Also, when I taught at a university where the main source of freshmen was the public school system, in my lectures, if I used a word or phrase that I believed the students might be unfamiliar with, I would start the sentence, use the difficult word, take a slight pause, the equivalent of a written comma, and then use a more common synonym. On a few occasions reading Flood's book, I wondered whom he was writing for. When he wrote about “adverts,”(59) I naturally assumed he was speaking about advertising, but he meant the far more obscure American definition. Elsewhere he uses “irenic,” and I assume most will read that as “ironic” with a minor misprint. However, he intends to convey a meaning quite different from ironic, more compromising, and pacific instead. Then use commas and add the more common term. Flood also inserts the term Phillipsian(43) in a chapter before he has given any information describing U. B. Phillips, so the reader will have no way of guessing why an adjective is derived from the man's name.

Finally, there is the issue of repetition. A book composed of published articles will likely contain repetition, but this is a mixed blessing. First, it can bore, but second, it allows for re-emphasis on important points. And in Flood's small book, there are many important points that should be emphasized. Flood has written a good, short book.

1) If it is fair to make an analogy between the Radical Reconstruction that occurred in the American South after the Civil War, with the even more radical reconstruction that occurred in Eastern Europe after WWII, we know that when the Yanks withdrew the military occupation forces after 1876, it was bad news for many Blacks and others who supported the Party of Lincoln. Had the Hungarian rebels succeeded so soon after WWII, what would have been their attitude toward those who viewed the Soviets as liberators? Which ethnic group was most grateful? I suspect Aptheker, and the far-right wing writer of history, David Irving, are probably correct in thinking a large pogrom might have occurred if the tanks had not been coming.

2) Another important point – should communists be allowed to teach? Though Flood does not emphasize it, Aptheker, often dubbed in the general media as the Party's theoretician, volunteered to act as an expert witness to help defend Steve Nelson in his trial in 1951 for violating the Smith Act. For several days Aptheker rolled out his knowledge of Marxism, attempting to persuade the jury that Nelson was guilty of no crime. However, in 1942 the FBI had bugged Nelson's home and knew he received a visit from a Soviet Embassy official who ordered Nelson to place reliable communists in the new Manhattan Project. The Soviet also gave Nelson money to implement the plans. Nelson was, in effect, being asked to establish a spy network to gather information about the development of the American atomic bomb to give to Stalin.

Did Aptheker, expert on Marxism and the Communist Party, know of Nelson's treason? Did he care? If he did not know, perhaps he was not the expert on Communism he claimed to be. If he did know, he favored the release of a man who set up a spy network to betray America concerning the most powerful weapon then in the human arsenal on behalf of the Soviets.

When someone joins the CP, he is expected to submit to Party discipline. This may mean not reading C. L. R. James and not citing him or giving him any credit in your books. It might also mean going to Mexico to deliver money to American comrades, or even eliminating the Mexican Communist who betrayed Gus Hall to the FBI. Or it might mean defending a man who planned the stealing of atomic secrets for Stalin. Would it also entail acts of treason? If a comrade were to ask you to pass an unopened envelope to someone, that seems innocent enough. It might be, but might not. All CPs had an open party and an underground party, and one task of the latter was to recruit some of the open party members to engage in espionage or to be agents of influence for the USSR. Of course, not all were recruited or would have accepted such an “invitation” to the dark side. But even Junius Scales, who was sent to jail for violating the Smith Act in North Caroline as a Communist in the 1950s, in his biography acknowledged, he was never asked, but wondered what his response would have been to the Party leaders if asked. Sidney Hook thought Communists should be barred from teaching because they might commit educational fraud. I think there may have been more serious issues to consider.